Fire is important for camping and other outdoor activities, including survival. There are several ways to start a fire, but knowing how to start a fire with sticks can be handy in a pinch.
If you plan on camping off-grid, you need the skills to start a fire with just sticks. Sticks are plentiful and easy to find. However, matches can get wet, and lighters can run out of fuel.
Being self-reliant in the woods is a must for backpackers. Starting a fire with friction is one of the most essential camping skills.
All backpackers and survivalists should bring waterproof matches and a fire starter to be prepared. But if these items are forgotten, lost, or spoiled, you must start a fire with just sticks.
You need fire to cook food, boil water, stay warm, and deter animals from being too curious. This post will review four ways to start a fire with sticks.
Campsite Safety Rules
Let’s talk about safety before we get too excited about starting a fire. First, are you even allowed to have a fire where you plan to camp?
Be aware of the upcoming weather, especially how windy it may be. Also, if it recently rained or might be raining, that may affect the wood and tinder you planned to use to start your fire.
Choose a Safe Location
Once you have determined that you can legally start a fire in that location, find a safe area for your fire.
Be sure the fire will be 8-10 feet away from grasses, bushes, trees, or anything that could catch fire.
The ground must be cleared of grasses, leaves, or debris that could encourage the fire to spread away from its designated location.
You may often find a previous camper’s fire pit of rocks; make improvements if needed. If not, you must build your own fire pit to contain the fire safely.
Dig a shallow pit to help block the wind and put your fire a bit lower for safety. Line the firepit with medium rocks and fill the holes with smaller rocks. Do not be lazy with building your firepit. Try to make it as solid of a wall as reasonably possible.
Materials needed to start the fire
Now that you have a safe home for your fire, you get to gather supplies for your fire. But, of course, these items must all be extremely dry, or your fire-making process may be complicated.
If you know you will be at a wet campsite, you can bring kindling. This isn’t cheating; this is smart planning. But, of course, it would need to be lightweight and small if you are backpacking.
All backpackers and survivalists should bring waterproof matches and a fire starter to be prepared. But in case of emergency, it’s a good idea to know how to start a fire with sticks.
Tinder can be made of different materials; they must be very dry and light up quickly. Such materials include pieces of paper, small twigs, wood shavings, dry bark shaved into dust, dry grass, cotton balls, dry leaves, and even dryer lint.
Kindling needs to be more substantial and a bridge material between tinder and fuelwood. These materials are usually bigger sticks or pieces of wood cut down. They need to catch on fire pretty quickly from the tinder fire because it won’t last very long.
Kindling can also be dry bark, pinecones, and larger wood shavings. Kindling is material that cannot be skipped or overlooked. Tinder fire will burn out before fuelwood can catch fire, so you must not skip the kindling.
Fuelwood is the meat of your fire and is the last layer of your fire. This consists of wood logs, lots of them. Different sizes are needed depending on how long you need to fire to burn.
If you need your fire to last for hours or overnight, you will need bigger logs. On the other hand, if you only need a fire for a quick meal or just to get warm for a bit, choose smaller pieces of wood.
Remember that you need to put your fire out in an appropriate amount of time. Larger wood will take much longer to burn down and can be unsafe if not totally cold.
The Hand Drill Method
The hand drill method looks simple and is what most people imagine when starting a fire with sticks. This method involves rotating the spindle (stick) quickly and repeatedly until the friction creates embers where the bottom of your spindle meets the fireboard (a piece of wood).
That being said, it can be challenging and take some time. All of these methods will take practice and tons of patience.
The hand drill method involves a spindle and a fireboard. The spindle needs to be a stick about 1-2 feet long and wide as your thumb.
The spindle needs to be rounded on both ends, especially the end that will rub against the fireboard. If one end of the spindle is slightly larger, this should be the end against the fireboard.
The spindle needs to be very dry, smooth, and straight. Keep in mind the spindle works in the hand drill method by your hands rubbing the spindle back and forth quickly.
Imagine rubbing your hands together as if you are cold. Now do this quickly and with a spindle between your hands. Now you can see why you want a smooth spindle. The hand drill method is tough on your hands.
Next, you will need a fireboard. The fireboard must be a piece of wood about ½ to 1 inch thick and long enough for your foot or knee to be on one end. It needs to be a flat piece of wood so it doesn’t wobble during the process.
You must carve out a depression or notch in the fireboard to house the end of your spindle. Next, carve out a small V-shaped wedge next to this other depression. The V-shaped area will house some of your tinder.
You can begin the hand drill method once you have your supplies. Place your knee or foot on one end of the fireboard, be sure the board is on a flat surface and doesn’t wobble.
Next, place your spindle into the depression or notch you had carved out. Then, gather your patience and start rotating the spindle as fast as possible between your hands.
Start at the top of the spindle and increase speed as you slowly travel down the spindle. When you reach the bottom, quickly bring your hands back up and continue the process.
You should see some dust and heat from the friction begin to form. Keep the process going until you see smoke.
Once you see smoke, gently blow on the area to encourage a flame. You can quickly add more tinder to the fire at this point, not too much at first. You don’t want to suffocate the new fire.
Be sure to have all your kindling and fuelwood ready to add to your fire when it’s time. Remember, this may take several tries, be patient with yourself. The hand drill method can take 10-30 minutes, so get started before it is too dark outside.
The Bow Drill Method
The bow drill method involves using a bow instead of your hands to create friction. You will need a bow drill (thicker spindle), a bow, a fireboard, a cord, and a socket (handhold).
The bow drill method is much easier on your hands than the hand drill method and is the most effective way to start a fire with sticks.
The bow drill needs to be a stick about 1 inch thick and about 1 foot long. It needs to be straight and sturdy. It should also be rounded on the end towards the fireboard and slightly pointy on the other end.
The bow will be made of a slightly flexible stick (green stick) about 2 feet long and no more than 1 inch in diameter. Bend the stick to form a bow (half-moon) shape and tie some cord to both ends of the stick.
The cord should be no thicker than a bootlace. You can even use your bootlace if you want. Make sure the cord is tight enough to keep the bow shape.
You will also need a fireboard. This can be the same as the fireboard used with the hand drill method.
The socket or handhold is either a rock with an indentation in it or a hard piece of wood with an indentation in it. This should be easy to hold with one hand. The socket puts downward pressure on the top of the spindle.
Now you are ready to make some fire. First, wrap the cord of the bow around the spindle one time. Next, place the end of the spindle into the fireboard notch with the tinder ready.
Next, place the socket (handhold) on the top of the spindle, and apply downward pressure. Simultaneously, move the bow back and forth, causing the spindle to spin on the fireboard.
Once the tinder starts to smoke, gently blow on it and then carefully transfer more tinder and move it to your fire pit. Be sure to have your kindling and fuel wood ready to go. The bow drill method can take 10-15 minutes if you have had prior practice.
The Fire Plow Method
The fire plow method is similar to the others in that it involves friction, but instead of rotational friction, it is forward and back motion. I like the simplicity of this method and would use it second to the bow drill method.
This method is laborious, like the hand drill method but is easier on your hands. You will need a sturdy straight stick (spindle) about 1 inch in diameter and about 1 – 1 ½ feet long.
You also will need a fireboard that is about 1 foot long with a carved-out trench going down the length of the board. The trench does need to stop a few inches from one end, where you will have a small pile of tinder.
You can place a foot or a knee on the fire board to steady the board and have leverage. The fire plow method is better than the hand drill method because you can use upper body strength instead of just your hands.
Next, you will place the spindle at a 45-degree angle to the trench and quickly run it back and forth along the trench. Again, go as quickly as you can; hopefully, you will see some smoke at the end where the tinder is.
You can transfer this to your other tinder and get your fire going. Again, have all your kindling and fuelwood waiting and ready.
The Fire Thong Method
The fire thong method is the last method we will discuss. It also is probably the most difficult but still an option.
You will need a piece of wood that is long, dry, and a few inches wide. Dry to find a dead or very dry branch for this. Cut it down the middle the long way, about ½ way down.
Then use a rock to keep the split end open. You will also need some rope or tough cord, something flexible but strong and won’t break with friction.
The rope must be long enough to get the needed speed to create friction. You will take the rope and run it in between the split.
Place tinder in the crook of the split, close to the rope. Lay the wood down on the ground. Be sure the ground is free of debris and grasses that could catch fire.
Place one foot on the non-split end of the wood and pull the rope back and forth through the split (thong). The friction created by the rope rubbing against the wood should start to smoke. Ideally, the smoke and heat will light up the tinder.
I don’t like the fire thong method because the wood can break while pulling the rope. Also, the wood is weak from being split, which might happen.
Benefits of Using Sticks
Using sticks to start a fire can be challenging but necessary if you are a backpacker or avid outdoors person. Matches can break or get wet. Lighters can run out of fuel. What if you didn’t pack a fire starter?
It could be life or death for a solo backpacker who cannot build a fire. Fire is needed for cooking food, boiling water is safe to drink, and warmth. It can also signal for help and keep animals at bay.
If you can start a fire with sticks, your chances of surviving a dangerous situation just got a whole lot better. Tinder, sticks, and wood are everywhere when you are out in the forest. Sure, you may have to do a little hunting for dry materials, but the alternative is much worse.
How to Avoid Building a Fire With Sticks
Obviously, starting a fire with just sticks is much more complex than other methods. Still, it is clearly a good survival skill that all hardcore campers should have.
That being said, fire can be made much easier with some planning.
Matches can be waterproofed by dipping them into wax and should be stored in a dry bag or ziplock bag. Firestarters are very affordable and small. A Ferro rod fire starter and a magnesium bar are two types of fire starters you can bring along.
Your fire-starting materials and tools should be kept in a dry bag. You can bring tinder from home if you choose to. Cotton balls are a great tinder to pack along. They take up hardly any space and weigh nothing.
How Long Does It Take To Start a Fire With Sticks?
This process depends on how dry your materials are and how much practice you have had. It can take 10-20 minutes, depending on the conditions, skill, and materials. The method also plays a significant factor. For example, the hand drill and fire plow can take longer than the bow drill method.
How to Start a Fire With Sticks and String?
The fire thong method can start a fire with sticks and string. There are several versions of this method, and they are pretty tedious. See above for detailed steps using the fire thong method.
How to Make a Fire When It’s Raining?
When it’s raining, making a fire is difficult enough, but if you also have to use sticks, that can be another challenge. You may have to hunt more for dry tinder and sticks than usual. You also may have to shave off wet parts of wood to get to dryer sections. If you may encounter any rain on your trip, it is best to pack a fire starter kit.
As you can probably imagine, starting a fire with sticks takes a lot of practice. So before heading out into the wilderness, try all the methods and see which works best for you.
Then, head to your backyard and practice, practice, practice. The last thing you want is to be in a challenging situation; all you have done is read about these methods.
Keep in mind the conditions will be significantly different while camping. It may be wet, dark, and windy. Therefore, always bring matches, a fire starter, and some small, lightweight tinder from home. Toss all this in a dry bag; hopefully, you can avoid using only sticks to start a fire.
And always practice fire safety. Put out your fire completely when you are done. Stir up the coals with dirt and water until the fire is totally out.
You can rest easy if you have all the skills needed to start a fire with whatever is available. And as always, you can camp s’more, worry less.